Directory Mappings 

AIX

FreeBSD

HP-UX

LINUX(RedHat)

SOLARIS

Tru64

Root filesystem

/              {/dev/hd4}

/       {/dev/ad0s1a}

/          {/dev/vg00/lvol1}

/                  {/dev/sda1}

/  {/dev/vx/dsk/rootvol}

/     {/dev/rz0a}

Home Directory

/home          {/dev/hd1}

 

/home      {/dev/vg00/lvol4}

 

/export/home
       /dev/vx/dsk/home}

 

 

/tmp           {/dev/hd3}

 

/tmp       {/dev/vg00/lvol6}

 

/tmp 
    /dev/vx/dsk/swapvol}

 

 

/usr           {/dev/hd2}

/usr    {/dev/ad0s1f}

/usr       {/dev/vg00/lvol7}

 

/usr 

/usr    {/dev/rz0g}

 

/var        {/dev/hd9var}

/var    {/dev/ad0s1e}

/var       {/dev/vg00/lvol8}

 

/var

 

Sample configuration files

-

 

/usr/newconfig

 

 

 

User Accounts

AIX

FreeBSD

HP-UX

LINUX(RedHat)

Solaris

Tru64

Password files

/etc/passwd
/etc/security/passwd

/etc/passwd
/etc/master.passwd

/etc/passwd
/tcb/files/auth/r/root

/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow

/etc/passwd 
/etc/shadow

/etc/passwd 

Groups file

/etc/group
/etc/security/group

/etc/group

/etc/group
/etc/logingroup

/etc/group

/etc/group

/etc/group

Maximum # of user ID

4294967295

65535

2147483647

65535

2147483647

65535

Allow/Deny remote login

/etc/security/user
{rlogin=true}

/etc/ttys 
{secure}

/etc/securetty
{console}

/etc/securetty
{ttyp1}

/etc/default/login
{CONSOLE=/dev/console}

/etc/securettys
{ttyp1}

User nobody's id #

4294967294

65534

-2

99

60001 & 65534(nobody4)

65534

Group nobody's id #

4294967294

65534

-2(nogroup)

99

60002 & 65534(nogroup)

65534

Recover root password

boot from CD/Tape
Installation/Maintenance
Start Limited Shell
getrootfs hdisk0
vi /etc/security/passwd

ok boot -s
passwd root

>boot
Interact with IPL ? Y
ISL>hpux -iS

vi /tcb/files/auth/r/root
vi /etc/shadow

linux S
vi /etc/shadow

boot cdrom -s
mkdir /tmp/a
mount /dev/c0t0d0s0 /tmp/a
vi /tmp/a/etc/shadow

press the HALT Button or (Control-P)
>>>boot -fl s
lsmbstartup
/sbin/bcheckrc
passwd root

Create new user

mkuser

adduser

useradd

useradd

useradd

useradd

Delete user

rmuser

rmuser

userdel

userdel

userdel

userdel

List users

lsuser -f ALL

 

logins

 

logins

 

Modify user account

chuser -a

 

usermod

usermod

usermod

usermod

General Commands

AIX

FreeBSD

HP-UX

LINUX(RedHat)

Solaris

Tru64

Unique host ID

hostid

 

uname -i

hostid

hostid

hostid

Administrator

smit

 

sam

linuxconf

admintool

 

Performance monitor

top
monitor

top

top
glance

top

top

top

System activity reporter

sar

sa

sar

 

sar

 

Virtual Memory statistics

vmstat

vmstat

vmstat

vmstat

vmstat

vmstat

I/O statistics

iostat

iostat

iostat

 

iostat

iostat

Error logs

alog -o -t boot
errpt

dmesg

dmesg

dmesg 

dmesg

uerf -R -o full

Physical RAM

1M TB 

 

4TB

64 GB {>2.3.24}

16TB

4TB

Shared Memory

64K TB 

 

8TB

sysctl kernel.shmmax

 

 

Process Data Space

384K TB 

 

4TB

900 MB 

 

 

Swap device

/dev/hd6

/dev/ad0s1b

/dev/vg00/lvol2

/dev/sda2

/dev/vx/dsk/swapvol

/dev/rz0b

Swap file type

/etc/swapspaces

swap

swap

partition type 82 

swap

raw

Display swap size

lsps -a

swapinfo

swapinfo -a

free

swap -l

swapon -s

Activate Swap

swapon -a

swapon -a

swapon -a

swapon -a

swap -a

swapon -a

Printers

AIX

FreeBSD

HP-UX

LINUX

Solaris

Tru64

Printer Queues

/etc/qconfig

/var/spool/print

/etc/lp/interface/*

/var/spool/lpd/lp/*

/etc/lp/interfaces/*

/usr/spool/lpd

Stop LP 

stopsrc -s lpd

 

lpshut

/etc/init.d/lpd stop

/usr/lib/lp/lpshut

/sbin/init.d/lpd stop

Start LP

startsrc -s lpd

lpd

lpsched

/etc/init.d/lpd start

/usr/lib/lp/lpsched

/sbin/init.d/lpd start

Submit print jobs

enq
lp
lpr
qprt

lp

lp

lpr

lp
lpr

lp
lpr

LP statistics

enq -A
lpq
lpstat
qchk

lpq

lpstat

lpq

lpstat

lpstat

Remove print jobs

cancel
lprm
qcan
enq -x

cancel
lprm

cancel

lprm

cancel
lprm

cancel
lprm

Add printer queue

smit mkpq

 

lpadmin -p pq

printtool

lpadmin -p pq

lprsetup

Remove Printer queue

smit rmpq

 

lpadmin -x pq

 

lpadmin -x pq

lprsetup

Make default printer

export LPDEST="pq"

 

lpadmin -d pq

 

lpadmin -d pq

export PRINTER="lp"

TCP/IP

AIX

 

HP-UX

LINUX(RedHat)

Solaris

Tru64

Network IP configuration

lsattr -E -l inet0

/etc/rc.conf

/etc/rc.config.d/netconf

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ 

/etc/hostname.*
/etc/inet/*
/etc/defaultrouter

/etc/rc.config

Hosts IP addresses

/etc/hosts

/etc/hosts

/etc/hosts

/etc/hosts

/etc/inet/hosts

/etc/hosts

Name service switch

/etc/netsvc.conf

/etc/host.conf

/etc/nsswitch.conf

/etc/nsswitch.conf

/etc/nsswitch.conf

/etc/svc.conf

Network parameters

no -a

sysctl

ndd -h

sysctl -a | grep net

ndd /dev/[tcp|ip] ?

 

Routing daemon

gated

routed

gated

routed

in.routed

routed

NIC Configurations

ifconfig -a

ifconfig -a

lanscan -v

ifconfig -a

ifconfig -a

ifconfig -a

Secondary IP Address

ifconfig en0 alias IP 

ifconfig xl0 alias IP

ifconfig lan0:1 IP 

modprobe ip_alias
ifconfig eth0:1 IP

ifconfig hme0:1 IP up

ifconfig ln0 alias

Login prompt

HERALD @
/etc/security/login.cfg 

 

telnetd -b /etc/issue 

/etc/issue

BANNER @
/etc/default/telnetd

/etc/issue

Increase the # of pseudo-terminals

odmget -q "attribute=num and uniquetype=pty/pty/pty" PdAt | sed "s/0-64/0-512/" |
odmchange -q "attribute=num and uniquetype=pty/pty/pty" -o PdAt

chdev -l pty0 -anum=256 -P
reboot

 

rebuild your kernel with these new values NPTY=# 
NSTRPY=#

reboot

insf -d ptys -n #
insf -d ptym -n #
insf -d pts -s # -e -v
 

cd /dev
./MAKEDEV -v pty

{/etc/system}
set pt_cnt = #   {SYSV}
set npty = #      {BSD}

{/etc/iu.ap}
ptsl 0 # ldterm ttcompat

halt
boot -r

cd /dev
./MAKEDEV PTY_1

Maximum # of ptys

512

 

{MAXUSERS}

256

176                {BSD}
3000              {SYSV}

8192

Remote Shell

remsh
rsh

rsh

remsh

rsh

rsh

rsh

YP/NIS service binder

/usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypbind 

/usr/sbin/ypbind

/usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypbind 

/sbin/ypbind

/usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypbind

/usr/sbin/ypbind

System Files

AIX

FreeBSD

HP-UX

LINUX(RedHat)

Solaris

Tru64

NFS exported

/etc/exports

/etc/exports

/etc/exports

/etc/exports

/etc/dfs/dfstab
/etc/dfs/sharetab

/etc/exports

NFS Client mounted directories

/etc/xtab

 

/etc/xtab

/var/lib/nfs/xtab

/etc/rmtab

/var/adm/mountdtab

Max File System

128 GB

 

128 GB

2 TB 

1 TB
8000 TB {vxfs}

128 GB {<= 3.2G}
512 GB {>= 4.0}
16 TB {advfs}

Max File Size

64 GB

 

128 GB

2 GB     {512B block size} 
8192 GB  {8KB block size} 

1 TB
2 GB {=<2.5.1}

128 GB {<= 3.2G}
512 GB {>= 4.0}
16 TB {advfs}

Max # File Descriptors

64 K

 

60~ K

sysctl fs.file-max

64 K

64 K

DISK/LVM Commands

AIX

FreeBSD

HP-UX:Disk &Filesystem

LINUX(RedHat)

SOLARIS

Tru64

Filesystem table

/etc/filesystems

/etc/fstab

/etc/fstab

/etc/fstab

/etc/vfstab

/etc/fstab

Free disk blocks

df -k

df -k

bdf

df -k

df -k

df -k

Device listing

lsdev -C

 

/sbin/ioscan

cat /proc/devices

sysdef

 

Disk information

bootinfo -s hdisk# 

fdisk -v ad0

diskinfo /dev/rdsk/c#t#d#

cat /proc/scsi/scsi0/sda/model

format -d c#t#d#
format>current
format>inquiry

file /dev/rrz0c

Disk Label

lspv -l hdisk#

disklabel ad0

pvdisplay -v /dev/dsk/C#t#d#

fdisk -l

prtvtoc

disklabel -p rz0

LVM Concepts

Partition 

sub disk

logical extents

logical extents

sub disk

sub disk

 

Volume

Volume

logical volume

logical volume

Volume

Volume

 

 

Plex

 

 

Plex

Plex

 

Volume group

 

volume group

volume group

disk group

disk group

Journal Filesystem type

jfs

 

vxfs

ext2

vxfs

advfs

Default volume group

/dev/rootvg

 

/dev/vg00

 

/dev/vx/dsk/rootdg

/dev/vol/rootdg

Display volume group

lsvg -l rootvg

 

vgdisplay -v vg00

vgdisplay -v

vxprint -l -g rootdg

volprint -l -g rootdg

Modify physical volume

chpv

 

pvchange

pvchange

 

 

Prepare physical disk

mkdev -c disk -l hdisk#

 

pvcreate

pvcreate

vxdiskadd

voldiskadd

List physical volume

lspv

vinum ld

pvdisplay

pvdisplay

vxprint -dl

volprint -dl

Remove disk from volume group

reducevg

 

vgreduce

vgreduce

vxdg rmdisk

voldg rmdisk

Move logical volumes to another physical volumes

migratepv

vinum move -f drive object

pvmove

pvmove

vxassist move

volassist move

Create volume group

mkvg

 

vgcreate

vgcreate

vxdg init

voldg init

Remove volume group

 

 

vgremove

vgremove

 

 

Volume group availability

chvg
varyonvg
varyoffvg

 

vgchange

vgchange

 

 

Restore volume group

 

 

vgcfgrestore

vgcfgrestore

 

 

Exports volume group

exportvg

 

vgexport

vgexport

vxdg deport

voldg deport

Imports volume group

importvg

 

vgimport

vgimport

vxdg import

voldg import

Volume group listing

lsvg

 

vgscan

vgscan

 

 

Change logical volume characteristics 

chlv

 

lvchange

lvchange 

vxedit set

voledit set

List logical volume

lslv

vinum lv

lvdisplay

lvdisplay

vxprint -vl

volprint -vl

Make logical volume

mklv

 

lvcreate

lvcreate

vxassist make

volassist make

Extend logical volume

extendlv

 

lvextend

lvextend

vxassist growto

volassist growto

Reduce logical volume

AIX reduce LV

 

lvreduce

lvreduce

vxassist shrinkto

volassist shrinkto

Remove logical volume

rmlv

vinum rm vol

lvremove

lvremove

vxedit rm

voledit rm

Prepare boot volumes

bootlist -m normal

 

lvlnboot

lilo

vxbootsetup

 

Remove boot volumes

 

 

lvrmboot

 

 

 

Extend File system

chfs -a size=# /mt

 

extendfs /dev/vg00/lvol8
fsadm -F vxfs -b {LE * 1024} /mt

resize2fs

vxva
mkfs -M

 

Reduce/Split mirrors

rmlvcopy

 

lvsplit

lvsplit

 

 

Merge mirrors

 

 

lvmerge

lvmerge

 

 

Create mirrors

mklv -c 2

vinum mirror drive

lvcreate -m 1

 

vxassist mirror

volassist make vol 100mb mirror=true

Add mirrors

mklvcopy lv 2 

 

lvextend -m 1

 

 

 

Create striped volumes

mklv -u 3 -S 64K

vinum stripe drive

lvcreate -i 3 -I 64

lvcreate -i 3 -I 64

vxassist make vol 100mb layout=raid5

volassist make vol 100mb layout=stripe

System recovery tape

mksysb -i /dev/rmt0

 

/opt/ignite/bin/make_recovery

 

 

/usr/sys/bin/btcreate

Backup

savevg -i rootvg

vinum saveconfig

fbackup

tar cvf /dev/rst0 /

ufsdump

vdump

Restore

restvg 

 

frecover

tar xvf /dev/rst0 

ufsrestore

vrestore

MISC

AIX

FreeBSD

HP-UX

LINUX(RedHat)

SOLARIS

Tru64

Startup script

/etc/rc

/etc/rc

/sbin/rc

/etc/rc.d/rc

/sbin/init.d

/sbin/init.d

Kernel

/usr/lib/boot/unix_up

/kernel

/stand/vmunix

/boot/vmlinuz

/kernel/genunix

/vmunix

Kernel Parameters

lsattr -E -l sys0

sysctl -a

sysdef
kmtune
kmsystem

sysctl -a

sysdef -i

sysconfig
dxkerneltuner

Reconfigure the kernel


chdev -l sys0 -a 

cd /sys/i386/conf
vi KERNEL
config KERNEL
cd ../../compile/KERNEL
make depend
make
make install

cd /stand/build
/usr/lbin/sysadm/system_prep -v -s system
vi system
mk_kernel -s system
cd /stand
mv system system.prev
mv vmunix vmunix.prev
mv dlkm dlkm.prev
mv /stand/build/system system
kmupdate /stand/build/vmunix_test

cd /usr/src/linux 
make mrproper 
make menuconfig 
make dep 
make clean 
make bzimage
make install
make modules
make modules_install

cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-2.2.16
mkinitrd /boot/initrd-2.2.16.img 2.2.16
vi /etc/lilo.conf
lilo

vi /etc/system
reboot

doconfig

List modules

 

kldstat

kmadmin -s

lsmod

modinfo

 

Load module

 

kldload

kmadmin -L

insmod

modload

 

Unload module

 

kldunload

kmadmin -U

rmmod

modunload

 

Initialize system

install_assist

/stand/sysinstall

set_parms initial

netconf

sys-unconfig

netsetup

Physical RAM

bootinfo -r

sysctl hw.physmem

grep -i Physical /var/adm/syslog/syslog.log

free

prtconf

uerf | grep memory

Kernel Bits

getconf LONG_BIT

 

getconf KERNEL_BITS

getconf WORD_BIT

isainfo -kv

64

Crash utility

crash

crash

adb

lcrash

crash

kdbx

Trace System Calls

syscalls

truss

tusc

strace

truss

trace

Machine model

uname -m
bootinfo -m

uname -m

model
uname -m

uname -m

uname -imp

uname -p

OS Level

oslevel

uname -r

uname -r

uname -r

uname -r

sizer -v

Run Level

who -r

 

who -r

runlevel

who -r

who -r

Core dump files

/var/adm/ras

 

/var/adm/crash

 

/var/crash/`uname -n`

 

Boot single user

Key on service mode/F4
Boot from CD/Tape
Select Maintenance
Limited function Shell

ok boot -s

>boot
Interact with IPL ? Y
ISL>hpux -iS

linux S

ok boot -s

>>> boot -fl s

Maintenance mode

 

ok boot -as

>boot
Interact with IPL ? Y
ISL>hpux -lm

 

ok boot -as

 

Interrupt Key

 

 

control-B

 

Stop-A

control-P

Return to console

 

 

co

 

ok go

 

Timezone Management

/etc/environment
/etc/profile

/etc/localtime

/etc/TIMEZONE

/etc/sysconfig/clock

/etc/TIMEZONE
/etc/default/init

/etc/svid3_tz
timezone

NTP Daemon

/etc/ntp.conf
startsrc -s xntpd

/etc/rc.conf {xntpd_enable="YES"}
/etc/rc.network

/etc/rc.config.d/netdaemons
/sbin/init.d/xntpd

/etc/ntp.conf
/etc/rc.d/init.d/xntpd

/etc/inet/ntp.conf
/etc/init.d/xntpd

rcmgr set XNTPD_CONF YES
/sbin/init.d/xntpd

Software

AIX

 

HP-UX

LINUX(RedHat)

SOLARIS

Tru64

Install Software

installp -a

pkg_add

swinstall

rpm -i package

pkgadd

setld -l

Uninstall software

installp -u

pkg_delete

swremove

rpm -e package

pkgrm

setld -d

List installed software

lslpp -L all

pkg_info -a

swlist

rpm -qa

pkginfo

setld -i

Verify installed software

lppchk -v

 

swlist -l fileset -a state

rpm -V package

pkginfo -i
pkginfo -p

setld -v

List all files

lslpp -f fileset

pkg_info -L package

swlist -l file fileset

rpm -ql package

pkgchk -l package

setld -i package

List installed patches

instfix -i

 

swlist -l patch
what /stand/vmunix

 

patchadd -p

dupatch -track -type patch

Package owner

lslpp -w path

 

swlist -l file | grep path

rpm -qf file

pkgchk -l -p path

 

SW Directory

/usr/lpp

/var/db/pkg

/var/adm/sw/

/var/lib/rpm

/var/sadm

/var/adm/smlogs

Devices

AIX

FreeBSD

HP-UX

LINUX(RedHat)

SOLARIS

Tru64

Devices

/dev

/dev

/dev

/dev

/devices

/dev

Install devices for attached peripherals

cfgmgr -v

/dev/MAKEDEV

insf -e

/dev/MAKEDEV

drvconfig
devlinks
disks
tapes
ports

scu scan edt
scsimgr -scan_all

Remove device

rmdev -l

 

rmsf

 

rem_drv

 

Device drivers

lscfg

 

lsdev

 

prtconf -D

 

CPU

lsdev -Cc processor

sysctl hw.model

ioscan -fnC processor

cat /proc/cpuinfo

psrinfo -v

psrinfo -v

List Terminal

lsdev -Cc tty

 

ioscan -fnC tty

 

pmadm -l

 

Diagnostics

diag

pciconf -l

stm

 

/usr/platform/`uname -m`/
sbin/prtdiag
ok test-all
/opt/SUNWvts/bin/sunvts

 

Whole Disk

/dev/hdisk#

/dev/ad0s1c

/dev/dsk/c#t#d0

/dev/sda

/dev/c#t#d0s2

/dev/rz0c

CDROM

/dev/cd0

/dev/acd0c

/dev/dsk/c#t2d0

/dev/cdrom

/dev/dsk/c#t6d0s2

/dev/rz3c

CDROM file type

cdrfs

cd9660

cdfs

iso9660

hsfs

cdfs

Rewinding tape drive

/dev/rmt0

/dev/rwt0d

/dev/rmt/0m

/dev/rst0               { c 9 0}

/dev/rmt/0

/dev/rmt0

Non-rewinding tape drive

/dev/rmt0.1

/dev/nrwt0d

/dev/rmt/0mn

/dev/nrst0           { c 9 128 }

/dev/rmt/0n

/dev/nrmt0

Floppy drive

/dev/rfd0

/dev/fd0

-

/dev/fd0

/dev/diskette

/dev/fd0c

Links

AIX

FreeBSD

HP-UX

LINUX(RedHat)

SOLARIS

Tru64

FAQ

AIX-FAQ

FreeBSD FAQ

HP-UX FAQ

LINUX FAQ

Solaris 2 FAQ

Tru64 FAQ

Online Manual

AIX 4.3 Books

FreeBSD Hand Book

HP-UX 11.00 Collection

Linux Documentation Project

Solaris 7 Documentation

Tru64 Documents

Technical Support

RS/6000 TechSupport

 

IT Resource Center

Red Hat support

SunSolve

Alpha Systems Support

Phone Number

1-800-CALL-AIX

 

1-800-633-3600

1-888-REDHAT1

1-800-USA-4SUN

 

Free Software

Bull

FreeBSD Primary Site

HP-UX Ports

Linux Software Map

Sun Freeware

Tru64 Demos, Shareware & Freeware

Certification

www.ibm.com

 

education.hp.com

RHCE

suned.sun.com

ASE Information